Instead of soaking into the soil, rainwater collects and moves down-slope in sheet or rill erosion, forming gullies and carrying soil particles. An effective soil conservation plan, which limits exposed soil and rain splash erosion, also depends on observation and maintenance.
How does heavy rain cause soil erosion?
Rainfall and surface runoff
In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil, ejecting soil particles. … If the runoff has sufficient flow energy, it will transport loosened soil particles (sediment) down the slope.
What happens to soil when it rains hard?
After a heavy rainfall, soil starts to spread out; soil structure is lost. Erosion depletes nutrient supplies or macronutrients like nitrogen, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. This changes the soil content, soil texture at the surface, water-holding capacity, and pH levels.
What does rain erosion do?
Rainfall and surface runoff
In splash erosion, the impact of a falling raindrop creates a small crater in the soil, ejecting soil particles.
What can erosion lead to?
The effects of soil erosion go beyond the loss of fertile land. It has led to increased pollution and sedimentation in streams and rivers, clogging these waterways and causing declines in fish and other species. And degraded lands are also often less able to hold onto water, which can worsen flooding.
Where does the soil go when the rain washes it away?
1.1 Rainwater infiltration and run-off
When it rains, water falling to the surface of the soil will either infiltrate into the soil or run off along the surface. Part of the water that infiltrates into the soil will be absorbed by the upper soil layers and part will seep down into the deeper soil layers.
How can we prevent soil erosion from rain?
Ways to prevent soil erosion
Terraces break up longer slope lengths and reduce slope steepness. Crop rotations with small grain or forage or with good residue cover (in row crops) help to hold soil. Planting rows on contours helps to channel small runoff streams across- rather than down-slope.
What happens when it rains too much?
But too much rain can cause a flood. A flood happens when a lot of water rises and moves onto land. The water can go into houses and other buildings. … Big storms can quickly cause floods.
What happens after water erosion?
Erosion of shallow soils can decrease the thickness of the root zone and the amount of air, water, and nutrients available to plants. The sediment removed by erosion can bury plants and roads; accumulate in streams, rivers, and reservoirs; and degrade water quality.
What are the 4 types of water erosion?
There are several different types of water erosion, but they can generally be grouped into four main types. These are inter-rill erosion, rill erosion, gully erosion, and streambank erosion. Inter-rill erosion, also known as raindrop erosion, is the movement of soil by rainfall and its resulting surface flow.
Is water erosion bad?
Water erosion not only effects the soil, plants and wildlife, but the water supply itself. … This results in reduced water oxygen levels and diminished water quality. The presence of harmful chemicals, such as pesticides in the topsoil, can reach water sources such as rivers, lakes and oceans.
What are the disadvantages of erosion?
Impacts of erosion
- reduced ability of the soil to store water and nutrients.
- exposure of subsoil, which often has poor physical and chemical properties.
- higher rates of runoff, shedding water and nutrients otherwise used for crop growth.
- loss of newly planted crops.
- deposits of silt in low-lying areas.
What are the 5 effects of soil erosion?
Some of the greatest effects of soil erosion include:
- Loss of Topsoil. Obviously, this is the biggest effect of soil erosion. …
- Soil Compaction. …
- Reduced Organic and Fertile Matter. …
- Poor Drainage. …
- Issues With Plant Reproduction. …
- Soil Acidity Levels. …
- Long Term Erosion. …
- Water Pollution.
What can we do to stop erosion?
You can reduce soil erosion by:
- Maintaining a healthy, perennial plant cover.
- Planting a cover crop – such as winter rye in vegetable gardens. …
- Placing crushed stone, wood chips, and other similar materials in heavily used areas where vegetation is hard to establish and maintain.